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    辛意云:大一統與中華文化

    來源:中華文化學院

    嘉賓簡介:臺北藝術大學榮譽教授,錢穆故居講座講授,臺北書院講座教授,臺灣趨勢科技大講堂講座教授,IC之音竹科廣播電臺經典導讀節目主持人,臺北建國中學國學社指導老師,素書樓文教基金會董事長。師從趙一葦、方東美、謝幼偉及傅偉動先生學習西方哲學,師從愛新覺羅?毓鋆及魯賓先生學習中國傳統經典,師從張澄基及印順法師學習佛法,隨錢穆先生讀書、治學二十三年。辛意云教授長期在臺灣民間推廣傳統經典教育及傳統藝術活動。

    中國歷史不止悠久,歷史范圍也極其廣大,自古就已人口眾多。就一部中國史而論,其變化、發展的內容,大約已超過一部歐洲史。今天的歐洲各國,以英、法、德、西班牙、意大利等國家規模來看,相對于中國,其實都算是小國寡民,或說如同中國的一省。

    中國社會的廣大復雜,人事、思想的繁賾,即使拿今天的世界各國來看,也多不足以相比,更何況遠古的埃及、亞述、巴比倫、波斯、古希臘和古羅馬了。

    從神農、黃帝、堯、舜以降,迄夏、商、周三代,國家、社會與天下的締造,也已有數千年。而天下、國家的規模,即使由夏禹、商湯、文武至周公來論,也有了二千年的時間。

    西周初年,在周公精心的經營創建下,中國已是一個封建制的大一統的國家了。而這封建制度的天下乃是依照周文王的天命、天德觀,達成“生”、“生生”的生命理想,進而以天下之“共生”、“共有”、“共存”、“共榮”作為天下共同發展的理想目標,并以禮樂作為國家行政的機制。

    (詩大雅文王)“皇矣上帝!臨下有赫。監觀四方,求民之莫”、

    “殷之未喪師,克配上帝。宜鑒于殷,駿命不易”。

    (逸詩) “我無所監,夏后及商。用亂之故,民卒流亡”。

    “維此文王,小心翼翼,昭事上帝,聿懷多福。厥德不回,以受方國。”

    “文王在上,于昭于天。周雖舊邦,其命維新。”

    “維天之命,于穆不已。于乎不顯,文王之德之純。”

    (毛公鼎銘文) “王若曰:丕顯文王,皇天弘厭厥德,配我有周,膺受大命”

    (尚書召誥) “惟王其疾敬德?王其德之用,祈天永命。”

    西周并以此為封建制度的最高原理、原則,以達成保民、愛民及天下和諧的結果。

    (尚書周書多方) “天惟時求民主”。

    (尚書泰誓) “天視自我民視,天聽自我民聽”。

    “民之所欲,天必從之”。

    (尚書梓材) “欲至于萬年,惟王子子孫孫永保民”。

    (詩大雅?蕩之什) “天生烝民,有物有則﹔民之秉彝,好是懿德”。

    一切以天下人類之共生為政治之最高準則

    春秋時,周平王東遷,王綱隳弛。繼起的齊桓、晉文仍是在這大理想、大一統的前提下舉出“尊王攘夷”、“內諸夏、外夷狄”的大文化政策。是以孔子論夷狄時還說:“夷狄之有君,不如諸夏之無也”,其所強調,民族的界線不在血緣,不在宗族,不在種族,而在生命理想的共同價值所結合的生命共同體。如此,在動蕩、變化的春秋時代,重新確立原本西周以來的“生生”大傳統。而后孔子繼承此生命理想,建立了“人學”,以人的自我德性覺醒來上接天德。他在《論語》中總括堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武、周公而來的歷史、文化大傳統。

    (論語堯曰) “堯曰:‘咨!爾舜!天之歷數在爾躬。允執其中。四海困窮,天祿永終。’”;“舜亦以命禹”。

    (湯)曰:“予小子履,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于皇皇后帝:有罪不敢赦。帝臣不蔽,簡在帝心。朕躬有罪,無以萬方;萬方有罪,罪在朕躬。”

    “周有大賚,善人是富。「雖有周親,不如仁人。百姓有過,在予一人。”

    (孔子曰) “謹權量,審法度,修廢官,四方之政行焉。興滅國,繼絕世,舉逸民,天下之民歸心焉。”

    “所重:民、食、喪、祭。寬則得眾,信則民任焉,敏則有功,公則說”。

    后來的墨子、楊朱、孟子、陰陽家、莊子、老子、荀子、韓非都在不同程度上繼承孔子觀點。他們在思想上雖各有主張,但皆在“天下定乎一”的觀點下,從全人類、全社會的立場上處理人類思想問題。隨先秦思想相激相蕩的發展后,共同歸宿并建立“天下一統”的大觀念,認為唯有天下走向大一統──讓思想、文化、生命價值展現共同性,讓經濟發展能有互助合作性,讓政治理想不以權力的占有、而以達成合作共生為共同的取向。如此,人民以至于人類才能避免戰爭,走向和平,擁有和平。

    而后至漢初《春秋公羊傳》成書,在魯隱公元年“春王正月”經文的解釋中提出:

    “元年者何?君之始年也。

    春者何?歲之始也。

    王者孰謂?謂文王也。

    曷為先言王而后言正月?王正月也。

    何言乎王正月?大一統也。”因此確立大一統的觀念。

    至漢董仲舒再進一步提出“存三統”、“張三世”,闡明夏、商、周三王之道雖因時各有不同,但皆為救弊扶衰,順從天命、完成生生之天德而已。

    這大一統的重點,是以人類“和平”為首的生命向往。文王所代表的,乃是象征以“和平”為首的“文明世界之王”。這至今也是人類“人文精神”統合了形而上之“道”、以及形而下“具體人生”的觀點。是以東漢《說文解字》解“王”字:“王”者,往也,天下之所歸往也。

    此后“大一統”思想乃成為中華文化的核心,反映出孔子成仁之道的根本精神,也是達成孔子所謂“仁者愛人”的最有效的精神與方法之一。

    由此,中國歷史上即使在紛亂、分裂的時代,人們以至于有歷史意識及民族精神意識的知識分子,仍都是時刻刻以天下民族的、國家的大一統為念。即使諺語中有“天下合久必分,分久必合”的說法,但這重點還是放在后面“分久必合”上。“大一統”是中國人們在生命中追求的理想。

    中國歷史以“合”、以“和”為尚。而“分裂”只是歷史中的轉折或一時之變相而已。這是中國能久、能大,民族摶合的根本因素。

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