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    李勇剛:中華文明是文化自信的充沛底氣

    來源:中華文化學院

    習近平總書記在十九大報告中強調,文化是一個國家、一個民族的靈魂。文化興國運興,文化強民族強。沒有高度的文化自信,沒有文化的繁榮興盛,就沒有中華民族偉大復興。這個重要論述,指明了文化自信對于民族復興的重要意義。習近平總書記進一步指出中國特色社會主義文化源自于中華民族五千多年文明歷史所孕育的中華優秀傳統文化,強調堅守中華文化立場。當前,在萬眾一心實現中華民族偉大復興的歷史進程中,歷經五千多年漫長歲月而傳承至今的中華文明,能夠為新時代中國特色社會主義文化自信提供基于悠久歷史的充沛底氣。

    這份充沛的底氣,立足于中華文明一脈相承的連續性。

    作為世界上唯一同根同種且以國家形態持續至今的偉大文明,中華文明不論在文化價值、制度體系還是社會結構上都沒有出現大的斷裂。環顧歷史不難發現,中華文明并不是誕生最早的文明——我們有文字記載的歷史是五千多年,而其他文明有的產生于距今六七千年前。但是,中華文明五千多年的歷史一脈相承,綿延至今。而其他的文明,盡管曾輝煌一時,卻都中途斷了線,有的成為永久之謎,有的成為千古之憾,化作和現在沒有什么關系的死的文物,只能在博物館中被人欣賞或憑吊。因此,著名哲學家馮友蘭說:“我國家以世界之古國,居東亞之天府”,“蓋并世列強,雖新而不古;希臘羅馬,有古而無今。惟我國家,亙古亙今,亦新亦舊,斯所謂‘周雖舊邦,其命維新’者也。”

    不過,強調中華文明的連續性,并不意味著其一直平穩發展,線性上升。中華文明在歷史上有高峰也有低谷,甚至一次次面臨生死存亡的挑戰。中華文明的偉大之處,恰恰在于不斷迎接挑戰,戰勝危機,通過螺旋式上升,一次次走向新的輝煌,從而在悠久的歷史中整體延續著中華文明的元氣與生機。近代以來,西方列強用堅船利炮敲開中國古老的大門,國人從器物層面到制度層面再到文化層面進行深刻反思,甚至一度陷入文化焦慮與文化危機。為挽救危機,中國共產黨應運而生。從此之后,正如十九大報告所說,“中國人民謀求民族獨立、人民解放和國家富強、人民幸福的斗爭就有了主心骨,中國人民就從精神上由被動轉為主動”。而中華人民共和國的成立,中國特色社會主義事業的蓬勃發展,更是在實質平等的基礎上奠定了中華文明的現代形態,使中華文明煥發出了新的生機和活力,在很大程度上恢復了一個古老文明應有的自信心和自豪感。

    這份充沛的底氣,孕育于中華文明海納百川的包容性。

    中華文明雖誕生在中華大地,但自古以來就不是封閉僵化的,而是一個充滿了活力、不斷汲取內外多維文化、海納百川的開放系統。與西方排他性的一神教傳統不同,中華文明立足于“成己成物”的“仁道”,主張“己所不欲勿施于人”,強調“禮聞來學未聞往教”,善于“和而不同”,樂于“成人之美”,在文明性格上從不愿意強加于人,從不推崇武力征服。在面對他者、面對異質性的要素的強力沖擊時,中華文明總是試圖去尊重之、理解之、吸收之并融化之。中華文明的“大一統”傳統強調“至大無外”——“無外”不是封閉排外,而是在歷史實踐中不斷與外部交流交融,消融現實的差別和對立,最終化外為內,四海一家。比如,面對佛教東傳帶來的強勁挑戰,儒道兩家都有過排佛之舉。但是,隨著相互之間的交往和交流,佛教吸收中華文化的現世特性,在中唐以后形成禪宗;儒家則在吸納佛教理論的基礎上,形成更加精微細密的宋明理學;道家也結合百姓當中同時存在的消除罪業與健康長生的心理需求,而與佛教互為表里,利益群生。到明清時代,最終形成儒釋道三教合流的中華傳統文化格局。

    到晚清時期,新的“中西”問題逐漸凸顯,那就是代表著現代文明的西方傳統所帶來的強勢挑戰。中華民族在中國共產黨的領導下,開啟了馬克思主義中國化的偉大進程。這也是中華傳統文化與馬克思主義接觸、吸收、融合的過程:中華傳統文化把馬克思主義這一外來文化中國化,馬克思主義也激活和改變了中華傳統文化。由此,中華文明不僅成功應對了西方文化的強勢挑戰,而且實現在現代的更始重生,也實現更高層次的文明包容性。今天,在民族復興的偉大征途上,新時代的中華文化不僅植根于民族優秀傳統文化的沃土,而且符合世界發展進步的潮流。

    這份充沛的底氣,最終扎根在中華文明以共同體為本位、強調責任倫理的主體性之中。

    在十九大報告中,“共同體”是一個高頻詞匯,不僅強調鑄牢中華民族共同體意識,而且多次提到推動構建人類命運共同體。報告還指出,人與自然是生命共同體,人類必須尊重自然、順應自然、保護自然。這些重要論述,深刻體現了中華文明一直以來以共同體為本位的主體性。

    從文明比較的視野來看,西方文明以個體為本位,而中華文明則以共同體為本位。以個體為本位的西方文明強調權利倫理,這種倫理崇尚二元對立的矛盾論,強調分化、競爭,推崇以實力壓人的霸道。這種倫理往往片面強調個人應該享有的權利,而不顧及現實社會條件,更不顧及個人權利所激發出的個人過分欲望對于整個地球資源和環境所造成的巨大壓力。更有甚者,權利倫理一味地片面強調自由與人權,往往為了所謂的自由與人權,侵犯更多人的真正的自由與人權,最終所形成的,不過是西方世界唯我獨尊的霸權和自私自利的貪婪。這種過度的、片面的權利倫理,最終給整個人類帶來經濟斷層、社會撕裂、宗教沖突、種族矛盾、民粹抬頭、恐怖主義、環境污染、氣候變化等諸多矛盾和沖突。

    要想應對這些矛盾和沖突,要想解決人類文明面臨的挑戰,要想解決在文明格局的調整中有所作為,必須全面復興中華文明,高揚中華文明的主體性。中華文明以共同體為本位、強調責任倫理,崇尚家國情懷。中華文明的共同體意識和責任倫理,一方面立足于家庭、家族之“情”,強調親情友愛;另一方面又通過“推己及人”、“將心比心”的“仁道”,而超越家庭、家族之“私”,由“齊家”而“治國”而“平天下”,一步步推廣基于家的親情友愛,一步步經營和建構更大范圍的共同體,一步步承擔更大的責任,一步步達到更高層次的和諧與共生。宋代大儒張載提出“為天地立心,為生民立命,為往圣繼絕學,為萬世開太平”,更是將家國天下的情懷和勇擔責任的精神彰顯無遺。與西方權利倫理相比,中華文明的責任倫理崇尚天人合一的和合論,更加注重整合、合作,推崇以道理服人的王道。這種倫理并不排斥自由與人權,只是要求兩者必須符合和諧與正義的原則;這種倫理在保障個人合法權利的同時,更強調個人對于共同體的可持續發展所應該承擔的責任。今天,我們倡導構建人類命運共同體,正是體現了一個負責任的大國對于整個人類命運的主動擔當。

    “天行健,君子以自強不息;地勢坤,君子以厚德載物。”五千多年來,中華文明遵道而行,含弘光大,繼往開來,自信而從容地創造出一次又一次的燦爛與輝煌。今天,正是站在歷史與文化之道的高度,習近平總書記在十九大報告中自信而豪邁地宣告:“大道之行,天下為公。站立在九百六十多萬平方公里的廣袤土地上,吸吮著五千多年中華民族漫長奮斗積累的文化養分,擁有十三億多中國人民聚合的磅礴之力,我們走中國特色社會主義道路,具有無比廣闊的時代舞臺,具有無比深厚的歷史底蘊,具有無比強大的前進定力。”是的,當我們以五千多年的中華文明作為底氣,高揚新時代中國特色社會主義文化自信,我們一定能取得更大的勝利,創造更新的輝煌!

    (李勇剛,中央社會主義學院中華文化教研部中華文化教研室主任)

    【本文系獨家原創,任何媒介轉載須注明來自中央社會主義學院網站(www.zysy.org.cn),否則追究法律責任。】

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